Science behind ByeByeGrass
Biodiversity and the importance of bees.
Solitary bees, honey bees and bumblebees make 80% of the agriculture in Europe possible, and their estimated value lies around 22 billion euros (European commission, 2013).
Bees are drastically declining in numbers, which can lead to economical, ecological and astronomical catastrophes (Atkins & Atkins, 2016).
The United Nations warn that within the next two years significant steps must be taken to counter the decline in biodiversity. If these steps are not taken, mankind is signing its own death sentence (De Standaard, 2018) (UN, 2018).
Climate models forecast long periods of drought with heavy rains in concentrated areas for the next 20 years (Tabari H., 2018) (Zadehtalaeia, Tabaria & Willems, 2018).
Ancient aquifers are being drained faster than they can be replenished, a chronic water dep- rivation threatens (Department of agriculture and fishery, 2018).
The more biodiverse our (dune) grasslands are, the more resistant they are to droughts (Rooijen et al., 2015).
More consideration of sustainable green space will result in better air quality (Nowak, 2002).
Grass is a green desert
A monoculture of lawns offers few ecosystem services (Ignatieva & Ahrné, 2013).
A lawn managed like a grassland absorbs CO2 more efficiently (Dass, Houlton, Wang & Warlind, 2018).
Trees are one of the cheapest and most efficient buffers against climate change, droughts, floods, air pollution, extreme heat and winds (Tudge, 2016)(Seits & Escobedo, 2014).
The number of trees in Europe is insufficient.
Trees are, alongside oceans, soil and grasslands, the most effective manner of absorbing CO2 (Ni, Eskeland, Giske, & Hansen, 2016).
Trees are natural air conditioning (Akbari, Pomerantz, & Taha, 2001). Trees store water in the soil (Fazio, 2010).
Trees maintain a healthy soil ecosystem and are an integral part of the rain cycle (Sheil & Murdiyarso, 2009).
Trees are the cheapest and simplest solution to environmental change (Forestry Commis- sion England, 2018).
Trees have a positive effect on public health (H. Donovan, 2013).
There is an inverse relation between the number of trees in a city and depression (Ten Brink et al., 2016).
More flowers, shrubs and trees make people happier (Alcock, White, Wheeler, Fleming, & De- pledge, 2014).
People living in green spaces are in better health, less stressed and have less chance of being obese (Nielsen & Hansen, 2007).
Mowing every two to three weeks, instead of every week, has an incredibly positive effect for bees (B. Lermana, R. Contostac, Milamb, & Bang, 2018).
We have observed up to 50 times more insect species in lawns that have been mowed just once a year (Garbuzov, A. Fensome, & L. W. Ratnieks, 2014).
Akbari, H., Pomerantz, M., & Taha, H. (2001). Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Energy, Elsevier, 295-310.
Alcock, I., White, M. P., Wheeler, B. W., Fleming, L. E., & Depledge, M. H. (2014). Longitudinal Effects on Mental Health of Moving to Greener and Less Green Urban Areas. Envi- ronmental Science and Technoly, 1247–1255.
Atkins, J., & Atkins, B. (2016). In The Business of Bees. Greenleaf Publishing.
B. Lermana, S., R. Contostac, A., Milamb, J., & Bang, C. (2018). To mow or to mow less: Lawn mowing frequency affects bee abundance and diversity in suburban yards. Biologi- can conservation, Elsevier, pp. 160-174.
Dass, P., Houlton, B. Z., Wang, Y., & Warlind, D. (2018). Grasslands may be more reliable carbon sinks than forests in California. Environmental Research Letters.
Departement Landbouw & Visserij. (2018, K. Walraevens, 2003, Grondwatermodellering voor Landeniaan, Krijt en Sokkel: modelleren van een aantal scenario’s). Vlaamse grondwaterproblematiek . Opgehaald van DEPARTEMENT LANDBOUW & VISSERIJ: https://lv.vlaanderen.be/nl/voorlichting-info/publicaties/praktijkgidsen/water/du- urzaam-watergebruik-algemeen/belang-van-2
Dewaelheyns, V., Kerselaers, E., & Rogge, E. (2016). A toolbox for garden governance. Land Use Policy, 191-205.
Europese Commissie. (2013). Bees & Pesticides: Commission to proceed with plan to better protect bees. Brussel.
Fazio, D. J. (2010). How Trees Can Retain Stormwater Runoff. Tree city USA bulletin.
Forestry Commission England. (2018, 1 31). How trees can help reduce climate change. Opgehaald van Forestry Commission England: https://www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/ infd-869ga8
Garbuzov, M., A. Fensome, K., & L. W. Ratnieks, F. (2014, Augustus 4). Public approval plus more wildlife: twin benefits of reduced mowing of amenity grass in a suburban public park in Saltdean, UK. Insect Conservation and Diversity, pp. 107-119.
H.Donovan, G. e. (2013, February). The Relationship Between Trees and Human Health: Evidence from the Spread of the Emerald Ash Borer. American Journal of Preventive Medicine , pp. 139-145 .
Ignatieva, M., & Ahrné, K. (2013, januari 9). Biodiverse green infrastructure for the 21st century: from “green desert” of lawns to biophilic cities. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism.
Ni, Y., Eskeland, G. S., Giske, J., & Hansen, J.-P. (2016, Februari 26). The global potential for carbon capture and storage from forestry. Carbon Balance and Management, p. 11. Nielsen, T. S., & Hansen, K. B. (2007, December). Do green areas affect health? Health & Place, 13(4), 839-850.
Nowak, D. (2002). THE EFFECTS OF URBAN TREES ON AIR QUALITY. Syracuse, New York, VSA.
Rooijen, N. M., Keersmaecker, W. d., Ozinga, W. A., Coppin, P., Hennekens, S. M., Schamine, J. H., . . . Honnay, O. (2015). Plant Species Diversity Mediates Ecosystem Stability of Natural Dune Grasslands in Response to Drought. Ecosystems.
Seits, J., & Escobedo, F. (2014). Urban Forests in Florida: Trees Control Stormwater Runoff and Improve Water Quality. University of Florida IFAS.
Sheil, D., & Murdiyarso, D. (2009, April 1). How Forests Attract Rain: An Examination of a New Hypothesis. BioScience, pp. 341-347.
Tabari H., W. P. (2018). Anomalous Extreme Rainfall Variability Over Europe ― Interaction Between Climate Variability and Climate Change. In New Trends in Urban Drainage Modelling. (pp. 375-379). Cham: Mannina G. (eds).
ten Brink, P., Mutafoglu, K., Schweitzer, J.-P., Kettunen, M., Twigger-Ross, C., Kuipers, Y., . . . Ojala, A. (2016). The Health and Social Benefits of Nature and Biodiversity Protection – Executive summary. A report for the European Commission (ENV.B.3/ETU/2014/0039),. London / Brussels: Institute for European Environmental Policy.
Tudge, C. (2006). The Secret Lives of Trees. Australia: Penguin Books.
Zadehtalaeia, P., Tabaria, H., & Willems, P. (2018). Precipitation intensity–duration–frequency curves for central Belgium with an ensemble of EURO-CORDEX simulations, and associated uncertainties. Atmospheric Research(https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.09.015), 1-12.